避免悔恨的海洋

太热.
太塑料.
过度捕捞.

到底是什么
澳门足彩的海洋状况?

现在逆转潮流是否为时已晚?

全球海洋生态学的领导者
在阳光海岸大学
考虑到危机——然后分享
一剂“海洋乐观主义”
在研究中这是有帮助的
做出改变.

一名动物生态学的学生从一只死海龟的胃里取出了200多块塑料, 南加州大学副教授凯西·汤森在一旁观看.

Tropical fish start appearing in waters near Sydney w在这里 they don’t belong, 南加州大学全球变化生态学教授大卫·舍曼合著了一份国际 研究 showing marine species 是 fleeing the equator in search of cooler waters.

这两个例子证明了澳门足彩的海洋面临的挑战——受到污染的威胁, 过度捕捞, 副渔获和气候变化的影响.

每年6月,联合国都会举行 世界海洋日 to highlight the need for action 和 to raise aw是ness. 的 theme this year is Revitalisation: Collective Action 为 Ocean.

南加州大学的研究人员解释了为什么澳门足彩都需要做得更好. 现在.

澳门足彩的海洋危机

大卫·舍曼教授不相信用糖衣包裹澳门足彩的处境.

“人类历史上从来没有过, have the world’s oceans been in as precarious a position as they 是 today. 毫无疑问,这是澳门足彩的错."

澳门足彩排放的温室气体使海洋变得比澳门足彩所知道的更温暖、更酸,舍曼教授说.

“Plastics that we use once 和 discard 是 now found on most of our beaches, 在海鸟的内脏里, 乌龟和鱼, 在巨大的, 海洋环流中心的纠结垫子, 即使是在海底最深的海沟里.

“We have pillaged the sea for fish for so long that some parts of the seafloor have been trawled literally hundreds of times. 事实上,海洋中没有一个食物网不受澳门足彩对高价值食物的贪婪胃口的影响, 经常食肉鱼类.

“Yet the ocean continues to absorb around 94% of the heat associated with global warming 和 about a third of the CO2 澳门足彩排放.

“它产生了地球上大约一半的氧气,养活了数十亿人,并雇用了他们. If we continue to degrade our oceans, much could be lost.”

斯科曼教授 来自南加州大学科学、技术和工程学院,是他所在领域的国际领导者. His 研究 over the past decade has exp和ed underst和ing of the magnitude of climate change impacts on marine ecosystems, 以及这些风险可能会如何升级.  他是最新的政府间海洋和海岸气候变化专门委员会的协调主要作者.

斯科曼教授 来自南加州大学科学、技术和工程学院,是他所在领域的国际领导者. His 研究 over the past decade has exp和ed underst和ing of the magnitude of climate change impacts on marine ecosystems, 以及这些风险可能会如何升级.  他是最新的政府间海洋和海岸气候变化专门委员会的协调主要作者.

塑料海洋

每年, millions of tonnes of plastic debris enter the world’s oceans, with the impacts graphically played out in the lives of our marine turtles.

"澳门足彩是 doing what we once thought to be the inconceivable. 澳门足彩开始填满海洋, 海洋动物吃了这些人造垃圾,造成了严重的甚至是致命的后果."
南加州大学 Associate Professor of Animal Ecology Kathy Townsend.

Research led by 汤森副教授 found up to 30 percent of Australia’s 海龟 have ingested marine debris, while up to half of the world’s 海龟 have plastics in their guts.

Marine biologist Associate Professor Kathy Townsend’s special interest is in marine conservation 和 human impacts on the marine environment. Her field-based 研究 programs use a multi-disciplinary approach 和 focus on global-scale issues such as the impacts of marine debris 和 marine pollution.

"We also know now that even a single piece of plastic can kill a turtle."

另一个 研究 by 汤森副教授 和 CSIRO of nearly 1,000 turtles found dead 和 washed up on beaches around Australia found that a turtle had a twenty-two percent chance of dying if it ate just one piece of plastic.  一旦海龟的肠道里有14个塑料物品,这种可能性就增加到50%.

Recent floods along Australia’s east coast have not only killed off large tracts of seagrass – the main food source for turtles 和 dugongs – but have also flushed alarming amounts of plastics, 其他碎片和污染物都被扔进了海里.

汤森副教授 来自南加州大学理学院, 技术与工程公司在海洋动物摄入塑料方面的研究处于世界领先地位. She recently co-authored the UN environment program report, “从污染到解决方案:海洋垃圾和塑料污染的全球评估.”

汤森副教授 来自南加州大学理学院, 技术与工程公司在海洋动物摄入塑料方面的研究处于世界领先地位. She recently co-authored the UN environment program report, “从污染到解决方案:海洋垃圾和塑料污染的全球评估.”

Disposable facemask found inside a dead sea turtle on the Sunshine Coast.

Disposable facemask found inside a dead sea turtle on the Sunshine Coast.

还有COVID废物的问题.

Sea Lions in Galapagos have been photographed playing with a mask 和 dead turtles with remains of masks in their guts 是 all evidence that COVID waste is finding its way into the ocean.

“澳门足彩的 全球研究 现在发现的海洋垃圾包括个人防护设备,如丢弃的手套,当然还有, 一次性口罩. 这种塑料无处不在,而且弹性很强,”汤森副教授说.

禁止使用一次性塑料袋和吸管, such as those introduced in the state of Queensl和 是 aimed at reducing the impacts of plastic pollution – but they’ve also led to the introduction of re-usable bags made of heavier plastic.

“If these lighter plastic bags 是 no longer in the environment, but they’re being replaced by more heavy-duty plastic bags, 那么它还没有解决问题, 这只是一个不同的问题.”

南加州大学 研究 is tracking the impact of Queensl和’s ban on plastic bags through coastal surveys 和 by monitoring the marine debris found inside dead sea life in waters off the Fraser Coast 和 South-East coast.

Sea lion with COVID face mask, San Cristóbal Isl和, Galápagos. 图片来源:Wilson Andrade

Sea lion with COVID face mask, San Cristóbal Isl和, Galápagos. 图片来源:Wilson Andrade

另一个危险信号是微塑料中的毒素.

“Microplastics 是 being found pretty much everyw在这里 at the moment, 从饮用水, 雪, 在动物体内等等, 但下一个真正重要的问题是, 摄入这些塑料微粒对健康有任何直接影响吗,汤森副教授说.

为了寻找答案,南加州大学正在进行可能改变游戏规则、世界第一的研究.

在大堡礁南部的水域, 南加州大学 PhD c和idate Caitlin Smith is diving with green 海龟. 轻轻抓住一个, she takes it back to a 研究 vessel to retrieve blood, tissue 和 faecal samples before releasing it back into the ocean.

是什么让这 研究 不同的是,科学家们并不依赖于动物尸体来提供答案.  For the first time, they 是 detecting plastic accumulation in live marine life.

Over 50 individual turtles have been sampled as part of the project by 南加州大学 with 研究 partners Griffith University, Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital 和 Sea Life Sunshine Coast.

“澳门足彩正在测试这些样本的血气, 电解质, 肾功能和肠道健康, 这让澳门足彩能够将塑料摄入和毒性增加与任何健康后果联系起来,”凯特琳说.

在地球的另一端, a similar 研究 is underway in the Galapagos Isl和s, 它在1835年被博物学家查尔斯·达尔文所闻名. 南加州大学 PhD student Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez is taking similar samples from sea lions, 海龟, 土地的乌龟, 海洋鬣蜥和鱼类来测试它们的健康状况和血液中的毒素水平.

“We’ve confirmed 38 vertebrate species with impacts of entanglement, 摄入, 栖息地受到塑料污染的干扰,”胡安说.

“澳门足彩的研究旨在继续量化, map, 了解这一全球问题的严重程度将有助于推动具体和实际的解决方案.”

的 研究ers will present their preliminary findings at the 2022 World Summit on Isl和 Sustainability at the Galapagos Isl和s at the end of June.

回到昆士兰的地面上,南加州大学的研究人员与野生动物救援人员联合起来.

不仅仅是成员  《澳门足彩》 监测和营救搁浅的海龟. 他们收集的数据让研究人员对澳大利亚海龟面临的威胁有了新的见解.  

“所有这些研究都有助于更好地了解塑料摄入的影响, not just on turtles but on whole populations of other endangered marine species,汤森博士说.

热度开始了

从海洋生物的移动中寻找
cooler waters to increased coastal flooding 和 erosion, much is made of how climate change is warming our oceans.

但真的有那么糟糕吗?

图片来源:Jacinta Shackleton

图片来源:Jacinta Shackleton

斯科曼教授 says the 研究 could not be cle是r.

“在相对较短的50年里, we have recorded thous和s of changes in marine ecosystems driven directly by 海洋变暖的变化 海鸟繁殖成功.

海洋物种的地理范围正在改变 一直以平均每年6公里的速度向两极较冷的水域移动, 它加速.”

澳门足彩是 生物多样性丧失 在热带海洋中,海洋生态群落越来越多 以温水物种为主.

海洋热浪更为常见, more intense 和 longer lasting with impacts seen in severe coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef – to mass mortalities 和 ecological regime shifts among cool-water kelp forests.

“但这不仅仅是气温在变暖. Critical temperatures 是 being reached at different times of the year – 和 this is changing the timing of plankton blooms, 鱼类产卵和迁徙, 和海鸟繁殖.

的se impacts 是 expected to accelerate 和 intensify.

“气候变暖导致的范围变化将促使物种以它们不适应的方式共存. 这将导致当地物种的消失, 和 eventually extinction of the most sensitive species,舍曼教授说.

“Changes in seasonal timing 是 greatest at the bottom of the food web, 这增加了捕食者生命周期中关键事件发生时间不匹配的可能性.

“例如, 鱼类和鸟类在迁徙或繁殖前将没有足够的食物来建立身体状况.

“这只是气候变暖的直接影响. 温暖的海水携带更少的氧气,减少了许多宝贵的中水物种的栖息地,如金枪鱼. 随着海水变暖,海水膨胀,海平面上升.

“Mangroves 和 saltmarshes will face rates of sea-level rise within the next 30 years that 是 faster than those that drowned these sorts of wetl和s during the last glacial cycle.

”,, 当然, 海平面上升还会通过洪水和海岸侵蚀影响海边的人类住区.

“到本世纪末, without dramatic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, coastal flooding that is currently expected to happen once per century, 将会发生, 平均, 每年一次."
斯科曼教授

”, that’s without poorly understood tipping points being reached, 比如南极冰层的突然消失.”

的数字游戏


世界已经 加热约1.1°C
从前工业时代开始.

到2030年将排放量减半
2050年实现净零 被认为是最好的方式
尽量减少气候变化对海洋的影响.

超过 1.5°C的变暖,
海洋中有许多临界阈值
生态系统将被超越.

海洋乐观

汤森教授提倡每个人都要有她所说的“海洋乐观主义”.

“虽然很容易不知所措, things can change 和 t在这里 是 some really great success stories, such as the humpback whales coming back from the brink of extinction,”她说.

"大自然母亲的适应力很强, 有时只是给她一点帮助,让她自我修复, to allow the ecosystem to come back into balance again."

Much is being achieved by adapting to a changing ocean with 研究-led action.

南加州大学科学技术与工程学院副教授Kylie Scales.

南加州大学科学技术与工程学院副教授Kylie Scales.

南加州大学 Associate Professor Kylie Scales is searching the ocean for hotspots w在这里 fisheries 和 habitats of protected marine species overlap. 

Albatrosses 和 petrels 是 also in her sights as she investigates tools to stop 海鸟 stealing bait from commercial fishing hooks 和 getting accidentally caught in fishing lines 和 drowning.

这是她作为生态预报员角色的一部分, seeking to underst和 和 predict changes in marine ecosystems, 对高度流动的海洋生物特别感兴趣.

“海洋动物,如掠食性鱼类, 鲨鱼, 海鸟和海龟为了寻找食物,会在动态的、零散的海景中航行,穿越遥远的距离, 配偶和避难所.”

生态预测可以帮助渔业提高对气候变化的适应能力.”

"As the oceans change as a result of global climate breakdown, marine ecosystems that support fisheries will also change dramatically. Fisheries need to be ready to adapt 和 remain sustainable."

一个尖端 研究  project led by Associate Professor Scales is finding ways to help fisheries improve sustainability 和 stop turtles, 海鸟, 海龟和鲨鱼成为意外的副捕获物.

的 project is part of wider international collaborations to develop dynamic management tools for marine ecosystems (more studies available 在这里, 在这里在这里).

“Similar to a weather forecast but with an ecological slant, 澳门足彩的研究将来自卫星和海洋模型的海洋数据与动物追踪和渔业数据联系起来,副教授Kylie Scales说.

“Particularly as our oceans change with climate breakdown, 这提高了澳门足彩对时间的理解, 在什么条件下,渔业最可能与海洋物种发生相互作用.”

的se forecasts also provide information on how target species such as tuna 和 swordfish might move or how harvested fish might vary in quality in response to changing ocean conditions (read 研究 在这里 ).

Associate Professor Scales is working with Tuna Australia, the Fisheries Research 和 Development Corporation 和 government partners to test 和 trial bycatch mitigation technologies, such as the Underwater Bait Setter 在澳大利亚n conditions.

This piece of equipment can help fishers set baited hooks below the surface, w在这里 海鸟 such as albatrosses 是 less likely to become caught.

在“岛屿方舟”上寻找避难所

在大堡礁南端的艾略特夫人岛,另一个重要的地方 气候变化研究项目 正在进行.

位于大陆架边缘的, 预计它将是大堡礁最后一个受到海洋变暖影响的岛屿.

As tropical marine animals 和 bird life head south in search of cooler waters, 夫人艾略特岛 is likely to become a natural refuge haven or "isl和 ark”. 这使它成为衡量气候变化的一个完美的基准.

夫人艾略特岛

夫人艾略特岛

澳门足彩预测,在未来20年里,澳门足彩将开始看到澳门足彩以前从未见过的物种,汤森副教授说.

南加州大学 is leading 研究 to compile comprehensive in-water species lists to quantify future changes 和 研究ing how reef isl和s connect to surrounding in-water coral reefs, from microscopic algae all the way up the food chain to 鲨鱼 和 manta rays.

四年 Leaf礁 研究 project – part of the Great Barrier Reef Foundation’s Reef Isl和s Initiative – is expected to provide a 研究 template for other reef isl和s.

Are t在这里 parts of the ocean that will escape the ravages of climate change?

斯科曼教授 is determined to find them as he transitions his focus from quantifying the impacts of climate change to mitigating them.

“特别, 我的工作是确定全球海洋的区域——从表面到海底——可以被保护,”他说.

“这些地区可以保护未来的生物多样性, irrespective of the emissions scenario society ends up pursuing.

“y 是 designed to minimise overlap with important fishing grounds, 从而限制了人类的潜在成本.”

Read more 研究 into climate-smart approaches to marine conservation 在这里在这里.

我不是科学家,也不是政客.
我能做什么?

同时减少塑料的使用,采取措施减少排放,比如多走路,少开车, 联合国正在推动每个人都可以帮助重振澳门足彩的海洋的其他方式. 这些包括:

  1. 烹饪海鲜大餐 – Look 为 Marine Stewardship Council (MCS) blue fish tick when shopping. 更多关于可持续海鲜购物的想法 可持续海鲜指南.
  2. 了解海洋 – Options include taking a free deep dive into underwater ecosystems with a “生活在水: Conservation, Current Issues 和 Possible Solutions Online Course featuring 南加州大学’s global leaders in marine 和 aquatic 研究.

一个承诺
找到解决方案

从恢复失去的海洋栖息地的研究到利用海藻的力量, 南加州大学正在进行其他新发现,并为澳门足彩的海洋面临的挑战寻找解决方案.

每一年, Times Higher Education (THE) releases Impact Rankings that assess universities for proven successes in addressing the United Nations’ 17项可持续发展目标.

17项可持续发展目标 是...

GOAL 1: No Poverty GOAL 2: Zero Hunger GOAL 3: Good Health 和 Well-being GOAL 4: Quality Education GOAL 5: Gender Equality GOAL 6: 清洁用水和卫生设施 GOAL 7: Affordable 和 Clean Energy GOAL 8: Decent Work 和 Economic Growth GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation 和 Infrastructure GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities 和 Communities GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption 和 Production GOAL 13: 气候行动 GOAL 14: 生活在水 GOAL 15: 生活在陆地上 GOAL 16: Peace 和 Justice Strong Institutions GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

澳门足彩非常擅长其中的一些...

亮点:

目标6:清洁水和卫生设施

澳门足彩被评为 全球前5名

清洁用水和卫生设施 西班牙

目标15:陆地生命

澳门足彩被评为 18th 在全球范围内 3rd 在澳大利亚

生活在陆地上 西班牙

目标14:水下生活

澳门足彩被评为 19th 在全球范围内 4th 在澳大利亚

生活在水 西班牙

目标13:气候行动

澳门足彩被评为 22nd 在全球范围内 4th 在澳大利亚

气候行动 西班牙